1. Home
  2. News
  3. New method: variety identification of apples

New method: variety identification of apples

Apples are one of the most popular fruits and there is an immense choice. These varieties differ e.g. in appearance and taste – some varieties are red, yellow or green and taste sweet or sour.

lifeprint GmbH has now developed a new method for identifying 55 of the most popular apple varieties.


Identification of apples by PCR


This new method is based on PCR (polymerase chain reaction). In this process the DNA is multiplied in vitro. The stalks of the apples are used for DNA extraction, alternatively, in the absence of a stalk, the rest of the flower is used. Six stalks are tested per variety. However, the test can also be carried out with leaf material, for example if the tree is to be tested.

PCR is used to amplify repetitive sequences of varying length (microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats, SSR) in the genome of specific varieties. The length of these PCR products is determined using a bioanalyzer. This generates a kind of variety-specific “fingerprint” which is then compared with the database to identify the variety.

If all 6 apples show the same pattern, the test report will note “Varietal authenticity confirmed”.

To be able to select the appropriate primer for the PCR, the information which variety is supposed to be involved must be provided.


Identifiable varieties


Currently the following apple varieties can be tested:

Ambrosia, bishop’s hat, Braeburn, Brettacher, Bonita, Boskoop, Caudle, Civini (Rubens), Cox Orange, Crimson snow, Cripps Pink (Pink Lady), Cripps Red (Joya), Dalinbel (Antares), Delcorf, Elise, Elstar, Fuji (Fuji Kiku), Florina, Gala*, Gala Royal*, Royal Gala*, Gala Royal Tenroy*, Gloster, Granny Smith, Gravensteiner, Golden Delicious****, Holsteiner Cox, Honeycrisp (Honeycrunch), Idared, Jonagold***, Jonagored***, Jonathan, Koru, Maribelle, Minneiska (SweeTango), Natyra, Nicogreen, Nicoter (Kanzi), Pinova**, Red Devil, Red Jonaprince***, Retina, Rockit, Red Hofmann** (Evelina), Rubinette****, Santana, Scifresh (Jazz), Shampion, Smitten, Spartan, Late flowering Taffeta apple, Sweetheart, Topaz, Wax rennet, Wellant

 The varieties marked with *, **, ***, **** cannot be distinguished from each other. Designations written in ( ) stand for the respective brand name / club variety of the apples.


Would you like to learn more about our services or do you have any further questions? Our expert will be happy to help you.


Dr. Katrin Neumann
+49 7303 951 95 32


Tentamus laboratories in your vicinity